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The Golden Girls opening screenshot

Betty White as Rose Nylund
"It's like we say in St. Olaf, Christmas without fruitcake is like St. Sigmund's Day without the headless boy."

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Back in St. Olaf...
— Rose beginning a story about her hometown

Rose Marie Nylund (née Lindstrom, born Karklavoner-Martin) is one of the four main characters in the NBC sitcom The Golden Girls and its spin-off, The Golden Palace. An innocent, loving, and kind-hearted simpleton, Rose rented a room in Blanche Devereaux's Miami home after being kicked out of her old apartment for keeping a pet. Though she often annoys her housemates with her dim-wittedness and her long, rambling stories of her hometown of St. Olaf, Rose's loving and supportive attitude helps her friends and loved ones keep a stiff upper lip during hard times.

Rose appeared in all seven seasons of The Golden Girls and and all episodes of The Golden Palace. She also appeared in the a few episodes in the related spin-offs of the series, Empty Nest and Nurses. She was portrayed by the veteran radio, stage and screen actress, Betty White.

Personality and Characteristics

Rose is an innocent, naïve, simple-minded, and exceptionally kind-hearted woman. It can be imagined that a good number of Golden Girls fans of Rose Nylund will agree wholeheartedly that indeed Rose is the sweetest of naivety with her unwavering cheerful disposition overall. She was best known for her rambling of somewhat nonsensical stories of her bizarre hometown village of St. Olaf, Minnesota. Many times, her housemates, Dorothy and Blanche as well as Dorothy's mother, Sophia, often endured Rose's St. Olaf's stories with exasperated silence, disbelief, and the occasional muttering of insults. She also has a tendency to become scared and paranoid easily, with the most prominent example being shown in "Break-In", when she developed CPTSD from a break-in at the house.[1]

Rose is something a bit of a pushover, who rarely stands up for herself. On one occasion, her blind sister, Lily, tried to convince Rose into moving to Chicago to take care of her. At Dorothy's many urgings to Rose to reconsider, Rose said no to Lily, which forced Lily to learn how to care for herself. Without Dorothy being the voice of reason, Rose would have said yes and been the pushover being that Rose is simply so kind-hearted. Although all four women volunteered their time, Rose was arguably the most involved in charity work. She drove a bookmobile, was a candy striper at a hospital, and helped organize a charity talent show, as well as among other things. She was a perennial runner up for a Volunteer of the Year award, even coming in second to a woman who was already dead.[2]

Rose is also quite domestic. She is seen often cooking or preparing food just as much as Sophia is. Whereas, Sophia tends to cook more savory Italian dishes that require a great deal of preparation work, conscientiousness, and tenacity. Rose, on the other hand, is more skilled at simple cooking and baking. She is often whipping up a Scandinavian dessert from pies, to cookies to cakes to Sparehooven Krispies. Her love for baked goods stems from her sweet tooth that she mentioned she had in "The Way We Met",[3] but it could also be from living on a dairy farm, as dairy is a key ingredient in many baked items.

Rose is also shown on many occasions to be an animal lover. Whether it’s dogs and cats or cows and chickens, Rose loves all creatures big or small. In fact, she even claims to understand animals communicating with a mouse that found its way into the house back in season 1. Her love for animals can be at the cost of her friend’s annoyance since Rose often shelters animals without warning Blanche and Dorothy. She found a stray cat and kept it as a pet; in a continuity error, it is revealed in a later episode that Rose is allergic to cats). Well, speculation goes to show that despite having allergies to cats, Rose will go out of her way to help a fellow animal in need of finding affection, love, comfort, and having a decent quality of life, and will make any sacrifices necessary to help a fellow animal in need.

Rose is quite creative and artistic, being a very skilled sculptor,[4] painter, and musician.[5] She is also an incredible baker, giving her food smiley faces or cutting them into cute shapes. Like Sophia, Rose is often seen sewing or knitting. Furthermore, Rose is also extremely good with her hands as a result of growing up on a farm. She installed a brand new toilet with Dorothy's help,[6] once single-handedly installed a plumbing system in the house, and even installed a house alarm system for the home, with all the products working as if a professional had installed them. She is also surprisingly agile for a woman of her age; more than once, she has demonstrated her strong dancing skills, including her ability to do almost perfect cartwheels and even full splits.

Another example of her craftiness is shown in "Vacation", where the girls are shipwrecked on an island with three young men who they were forced to share a room with in a terrible hotel. Rose ultimately raises her voice and takes charge when the group starts to bicker, instructing the boys to scout for water, while instructing Blanche and Dorothy to start breaking up the boat for firewood. Her change in stance intimidates even Blanche and Dorothy, who meekly follow her orders. Rose claims to have been the most decorated scout in all of northern Minnesota, who could start a fire with rocks, build a one-hundred-foot rope bridge, and filter seawater to freshwater, although she later admitted that she lacked the right tools for it, but said it anyway in the heat of the moment. Later, the girls are shown to have a bonfire burning, which shows that Rose was indeed competent in her claims.

Despite being the most kind-hearted of the ladies, Rose also has the potential to be the most nasty, even outranking some the clapbacks and insults of her roommates. She has a nasty competitive streak, which is featured prominently in "The Competition", where she secretly dumps Blanche and signs Dorothy up to be her partner in a bowling tournament, then later dumps Dorothy in favor of Olga Neilsen.[7] In a January 1989 episode, she coaches a children's football team. She also stated that she once had to change high schools because of a "nasty field hockey incident."[7]


Back in St. Olaf...

Rose was born on March 12th, 1930, in the town of St. Olaf, a Norwegian-populated farming settlement in the state of Minnesota. Her birth parents were "Big" Brother Martin, a monk at the St. Olaf Monastery, and his lover Ingrid Kerklavoner, the monastery's chef. Unfortunately, Ingrid died in childbirth, and the abbott, who had learned of Ingrid and Martin's relationship,. Rose lived in the orphanage until she was eight years old, and during this time she developed a deep, unrelenting conviction that her biological father was Bob Hope, a belief she would retain until she met her biological father in "Once, In St. Olaf".[8]

Eventually, Rose was adopted by Gunter and Alma Lindström, who raised her with eight other children lovingly on their dairy farm.[8] Rose had a total of eight other siblings; sisters Holly and Lily, and Michael and five other brothers. Since Rose was growing up on a farm, she spent a good deal of time with the many, various farm animals. This fondness and bond to animals in close proximity to her gave rise to Rose's deep love for and companionship with various farm animals. Rose remarked that neither of her parents made her and her siblings feel like they were less important than the other eight, and that they would have the best Christmases complete with her father playing Christmas carols at the piano, her mother making homemade eggnog, and the family decorating the tree.[9]

While growing up, her closest childhood friend was a girl named Ingrid, and the two would often meet up to chat or play in a treehouse together several times per week until Rose got engaged. In 1937, Rose met Charlie Nylund, the boy who would become her husband, while he was selling insurance on the street corner. One day while Rose was hauling home a smoked ham, a group of hogs were set off and trampled her wagon. Though Rose's policy didn't cover acts of swine, Charlie paid for the replacement wagon himself.[10] Charlie asked Rose to marry him soon after they met, and though it was love at first sight, and he proposed marriage, Rose's mother told her to wait until she was fifteen to get married.[11]

Rose’s teenage years were somewhat of a mystery. In "Ladies of the Evening", she stated she lost the St. Olaf Butter Queen Pageant due to a case of '"churn tampering".[12] Rose's parents did not allow her to date without her parent's awareness until she was a high school senior. However, to her parent's lack of knowledge, between quite possibly Rose's middle school days up to her wedding day, she had fifty-six boyfriends. For a period of time, she was interested in a boy at her school named Clel Lightener, and agreed to meet him at a bar in Tyler's Landing one night. Rose stole her father's truck and drove out to the bar, but she was too chicken to leave the truck. When she eventually tried to go inside, she was stopped by her church's Reverend, who was leaving the bar with a married woman on his arm. Rose and the Reverend swore each other to secrecy, and the Reverend kept Rose's secret util the day he died...two days later, after he was shot by the husband of the woman he was seeing. The week after, Rose's family became Lutherans.[13]

When Rose was in high school, she had a history teacher named Fritz Sticklemeyer, who she insisted was a Nazi planted in American schools as part of a program to plant misinformation in the minds of students. There was also a female gym teacher named Ava Braun, who was rumored to have dated Mr. Sticklemeyer. This confirms that Rose's high school history teacher was undoubtedly Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Third Reich. Rose was fortunately not noticeably affected by any alleged propaganda, but she was aware that her teacher was Hitler operating under an assumed alias.[14] However, Rose also had to switch high schools after her overcompetitive nature led to a rather distressing incident during a field hockey game.[7]

Rose also missed her high school graduation due to contracting mononucleosis from her first customer at a kissing booth -- which she passed to fifty other male students and a female gym teacher "who smelled of Old Spice". Rose was then in a mono-induced coma for several weeks, and when she woke from the coma, she had missed both her graduation and the integration of major-league baseball.[14] Despite missing her graduation, Rose was her high school's valedictorian -- specifically, the fourth in a class of nineteen students -- because she drew the longest straw from a hat.

Rose claimed she never gave her virginity to any of those boyfriends during the course of that time -- except for Charlie Nylund. After Charlie returned from fighting in World War II, he and Rose became engaged in 1946. Upon learning of this, the Nylunds threatened to cut Charlie out of the family grout fortune, but Charlie refused to bend to their will, saying he loved Rose more than grout. Rose later learned that the Nylunds' hostility was due to a feud between the Nylunds and her mother's maiden family, the Gorkleknabygens.[15] On February 12th, 1948, Rose and Charlie were married in St. Olaf Church. Rose wore a white flannel wedding gown, which even had feet sewn into it.[16]

Marriage to Charlie Nylund

Charlie and Rose had a relatively long and happy marriage and had a total of five children -- daughters Bridget, Gunilla, and Kirsten, and sons Adam and Charlie, Jr. Rose continued her education even after she married her husband, and had a rather extensive college career -- she majored in business management at St. Paul's Business School, general studies at Rockport Community College, and graduated first in her class from St. Gustaf University with a degree in Pig Latin.[17]

Around 1959, Rose sustained a back injury while plowing the fields and was prescribed high-strength painkillers to help with the pain.[18]

Charlie unexpectedly passed away in 1980, suffering from a heart attack while he and Rose were making love.[19] As he had his heart attack, he asked Rose to dress him so he wouldn't be naked when the paramedics arrived. Rose was able to dress him despite a brief argument about her dressing him in white, and just before Charlie died, he told her he loved her.[20] Due to the circumstances of Charlie's death, Rose spent the next handful of years abstaining from sexual intimacy out of fear that the next man she slept with would die like Charlie did.[19]

Moving to Miami

Subsequent to Charlie passing away, Rose continued her days without him and stayed in St. Olaf for quite a while. However, after nearly a year alone in an empty house full of fond memories, Rose decided on her first birthday after Charlie's death that she would sell their house. The house sold quickly enough, and Rose used the money to pursue a new life in Miami, Florida.[21] Upon moving to Miami, Rose got a job at a grief counselling center.[22]


Rose meets Blanche; "The Way We Met" (1986)

Some years after moving to Miami, Rose was thrown out of her apartment for for violating her lease by keeping a stray cat, whom she'd named Mr. Peepers, as a pet. Now homeless, Rose took the cat with her to the local supermarket to search the community bulletin board for any rooms up for rent. She stumbled across a room-for-rent ad from Blanche Devereaux, and while Blanche wasn't initially fond of Rose, she was moved to offer her a place to stay after watching her give Mr. Peepers away to a little boy whose cat had just died. After arriving to move in to Blanche's home, she met Dorothy Zbornak, who had also taken up an offer to room with Blanche. Blanche later explained that she had multiple rooms available, and she let Rose and Dorothy pick out which rooms they wanted. While the ladies initially didn't get along, they eventually decided to stay together and learn to get along -- especially after learning of their shared love of cheesecake.[23]

Life with The Ladies

After Rose's counselling center closed and left her without a job, she tried to run a small counselling center out of the house, only to be bothered day and night by patients coming to see her and calling at all hours of the night. She was able to find a temporary job as a waitress at the Fountain Rock Coffee Shop,[24] but at some point, the counseling center reopened and Rose got a job there again.

In December 1987, Rose was visited by a man named Buddy Rourke, who claimed to be a wartime buddy of Charlie's. Over the next several days, Rose and Buddy got together and reminisced about Charlie, and Buddy asked Rose to move to Boston with him as he was falling in love with her. He asked Rose to go in on an apartment with him, and to give him her half of the money before they moved so he could buy it when they arrived. While Rose did consider the offer, she ultimately turned Buddy down -- while she enjoyed reminiscing and being with him, she did not love him. Rose thanked Buddy for rekindling her fond memories of Charlie and the two parted ways. Unknown to Rose, Dorothy had found out that Buddy was a con man who had repeatedly conned army widows out of money and valuables, and, after Buddy's departure, had been convinced by Sophia to keep the truth a secret.[25]

When Dorothy started teaching night classes, Rose jumped at the chance to take one so she could get her GED. Though she studied and applied herself as best she could, Rose initially failed her final exam by writing that Franz Sticklemeyer was the leader of the Third Reich. When Dorothy showed Rose a photograph of Adolf Hitler, she was surprised when Rose recognized Eva Braun. Rose confirms that Braun was her high school's PE teacher, adding that there were rumors that Sticklemeyer had once dated her. While this proves that Rose's history teacher was undoubtedly Adolph Hitler, the baffled Dorothy chooses not to question it and passes Rose anyway, making her a high school graduate.[14]

In November 1988, Rose won St. Olaf’s "Woman of the Year" award, which was the highest award that could be given in the town. The ladies made the trip by crummy aircraft, then by train, and then by horse carriage -- but unbeknownst to Rose, Dorothy and Blanche altered and embellished her list of achievements so that it would be nearly impossible for Rose to lose her nomination. When Rose learned of this, she refuses to accept the award and wanted to immediately go back to Miami without ever stepping foot near St. Olaf. In due time, however, the town of St. Olaf still named Rose as Woman of the Year, as Rose exhibited the principles for which the award stood for. And, of course, because the award's runner-up was disqualified for having a skeleton in her closet -- this being St. Olaf, it was her husband's skeleton.[26]

New Job, New Beau...New Father?

In October 1989, the company once belonging to Charlie went bankrupt, and in due time Rose also lost Charlie's Army pension plan. As a result, Rose was forced to look for a higher-paying job to keep her afloat, but nobody she applied to would hire her because of her age. At the behest of her friends, Rose turned to local consumer reporter Enrique Más, who, moved by her passion, hired her as his new personal assistant.[27]

Later that year, Rose began dating college professor Miles Webber, her first significant relationship since Charlie’s passing.[28]

Although Rose had known she was adopted since she was a little girl, she did not know the identity of her birth parents (and had come to believe that Bob Hope was indeed her father) up until the episode "Once In St. Olaf", where her birth father Martin was a patient at a hospital she was volunteering at. Although Rose was initially angry with her father for never wanting to meet her through, she forgave him quickly. Like most of the main characters’ relatives, Rose’s birth father was never again seen nor mentioned on the show.

In January 1991, Rose learned that Miles was actually an accountant from Chicago named Nicholas Carbone, who had been placed in the Witness Protection Program due to his involvement with the mafia. After the hitman that was searching for Miles had supposedly died, Miles was able to leave witness protection and go back to Chicago. Rose eventually realized that she still loved Miles, and decided to move to Chicago with him. However, when it was revealed that the hitman had faked his death, Miles was forced to reenter the Witness Protection Program and said goodbye to Rose.[29] In Miles's absence, Rose began dating a man named Karl -- but upon Miles's sudden return to Miami, she learned that Karl was actually Mickey Moran, the mobster who was after Miles. Karl was rearrested thanks to the timely arrival of Barbara Weston, and Miles was free to stay with Rose in Miami.[30] They briefly considered marriage in 1992, but they both decided against it.[31]

In May 1992, on the eve of Dorothy’s second marriage to Blanche’s uncle, Lucas Hollingsworth, Rose initially decided to move in with her daughter Kirsten. However, Rose changed her mind when she realized she would not quite be needed there. Moreover, she could not stand leaving Blanche and Sophia alone after all they went through together in the last seven years and the fact that Dorothy also just left. Rose could not find it in her heart to go against her two best friends now that Dorothy left. She revealed that she felt as if she may get in the way of her daughter's family life and change the dynamics within Kirsten's family. Thus, Rose, Blanche, and Sophia continue to remain in the Miami ranch home together even after Dorothy’s wedding and parting.

The Golden Palace

On September 18th, 1992, Blanche used the money earned from selling her Miami ranch home to purchase The Golden Palace Hotel in downtown Miami. Rose took charge of the housekeeping duties. Perhaps due to the absence of Dorothy's authoritative and voice of reason presence, Rose became more confident and assertive. Her barbs at Blanche's promiscuity became more overt and frequent, and she frequently stood up for causes she believed in, such as not allowing obvious adulterers to check into the hotel.

Rose also appeared in three episodes of Empty Nest, entitled Strange Bedfellows, Rambo of Neiman Marcus & Dr. Watson and Mr. Hyde, and one episode of Nurses, entitled Begone with the Wind.




Soon after moving and somewhat settling into Miami, Rose found work as a full-time counselor at a grief counselling center. However, she was unable to handle working with people who were moderately-to-severely depressed and even suicidal, and her work took a toll on her mental health. After the counselling center closed and left Rose without a job, she tried to run a small counselling center out of the house, only to be bothered day and night by patients coming to see her and calling at all hours of the night. She was able to find a temporary job as a waitress at the Fountain Rock Coffee Shop,[24] but at some point, the counseling center reopened and Rose got a job there again.

In 1989, the company Charlie worked for went bankrupt, and the Army cut off his pension payments. Rose was forced to look for a better-paying job, but was unable to find one as nobody would hire her due to her age. She later became personal assistant to consumer reporter Enrique Mas.

Rose has also worked a number of small jobs throughout the series:

  • Pet Shop Employee: Rose worked at a pet shop in St. Olaf for ten years, coming up with the idea for squeaky toys for cows.[32]
  • Waitress: While she was looking for a new job, Rose became a waitress at the Fountain Rock Coffee Shop.
  • Caterer: For a time, Rose and her roommates ran a wedding planning business called Miami Moms Catering. However, they ended up losing out on a sizable amount of money after their first client decided to elope with her fiancé.[33]


In January 1987, Rose had an esophageal spasm that caused a near-death experience. In March 1989, she came clean about a decades-long addiction to prescription painkillers. Rose also endured an AIDS scare in February 1990, when she was alerted that a blood transfusion she had received during an operation several years before may have been tainted with HIV. In late April/early May 1992, Rose suffered a major heart attack and had to have triple bypass surgery.

Casting and Development

As per Jim Colucci's extensive interviews and lengthy, in-depth scrutiny of all things golden in his book, The Golden Girls: An Authorized Look Behind the Lanai, producer Jay Sandrich wanted to cast the roles for the then-in production series.[34] After Sandrich, Paul Junger Witt, Tony Thomas, and Susan Harris gathered together to discuss potential casting, the candidates were narrowed down to Betty White and Rue McClanahan. Betty White previously played the role of sarcastic, promiscuous, and man-hungry Susan Ann Nivens in the 1973 TV series, The Mary Tyler Moore Show.[34] White had also co-starred with McClanahan in the first two seasons of Mama's Family; Rue playing the role of the uptight, sarcastic, sharp-tongued Aunt Frances Crowley, while White played the role of snobbish, wealthy, and assertive Mary Ellen Harper-Jackson.[35] Additionally, White had previously portrayed the sarcastic, promiscuous, man-hungry Susan Anne Nivens in The Mary Tyler Moore Show.

According to Paul Junger Witt, the casting team had zeroed in on McClanahan to play Rose and White to play Blanche. However, when White and McClanahan received the scripts, both were drawn to the opposite character they had been chosen for. Per her autobiography, Here We Go Again: My Life in Television, White said "From the script we had read, we knew the strong character of Dorothy, and her brutally frank mother, Sophia. We understand the lustful Blanche. But, I hadn't a clue who Rose was."

On the first day of rehearsal for White and McClanahan, Sandrich interrupted the rehearsal to ask if McClanahan would play Blanche and Betty would play Rose. "It was a perfect switch, in hindsight." Betty White said in an interview with in 2004. McClanahan mentioned shortly that day following Betty White selected to play as Rose Nylund, "Betty was hysterical as Rose. Her eyes went wide and stayed that way for seven years. I used to call them her Little Orphan Annie eyes -- white ovals with nothing in them. The irony is that she's such and incredibly brilliant woman." In addition, Betty White recalled that "Rue took Blanche and went with her where I never would have had the guts to go. So, it just worked out beautifully."[34]


To be added.


The Golden Girls (1985-1992)

Empty Nest (1988-1995)

The Golden Palace (1992-1993)


  • In "Job Hunting", Dorothy states that Rose is fifty-five years old in 1986, which would put her birth year in 1930 or 1931. This makes Rose about fifty-four or fifty-five when the series first begins, and sixty-two or sixty-three when the final season of The Golden Palace aired.
  • According to the episode "Nice and Easy", Rose is a fan of the television series Miami Vice, knowing lots of obscure trivia about the show. The Golden Girls was originally inspired by a comedy sketch pitching a parody of Miami Vice.
  • All of Rose's children were conceived on special St. Olaf holidays. Adam was conceived on The Day of the Princess Pig, Gunilla was conceived on Hay Day, and Kirsten was conceived on The Day of the Wheat. It is unknown what holidays Charlie Jr. and Bridget were conceived on.
  • In "The Engagement", Rose claims that she once tried to call a "Mrs. Gandhi", and asserts that the woman would still be alive if she'd taken Rose's call. as her hunches are never wrong.[22] Indira Gandhi was the Third Prime Minister of India, and she was assassinated via an inside job in October 1984.
  • In "Rose the Prude", Rose reveals that she was 51 before she'd heard of a prostate.[36]
  • While she worked at the counselling center, Rose once said she had the highest suicide rate in the office, implying that she may have miscommunicated with her clients and invertedly caused them to take their lives. However, given that Rose mentioned this as an excuse to get out of spending time with a depressed Stan, there is some doubt as to whether this is true.[37]
  • Rose is the only one of the Golden Girls to not go through with or almost go through with a wedding ceremony. Blanche was left at the altar in the series premiere, Dorothy nearly re-married Stan and married Blanche's Uncle Lucas in the series finale, and Sophia married Max Weinstock in Season 4. Rose and Miles did make a hasty decision to get married in order to receive a free honeymoon trip in "A Midwinter Night's Dream", but decided not to go through with it.

Site Navigation

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The Golden Girls characters
Main Cast Blanche DevereauxDorothy ZbornakRose NylundSophia Petrillo
Recurring Cast Miles WebberSalvadore PetrilloStanley Zbornak
Family members Alma LindstromAngelo Grisanti, Jr.Angela PetrilloAngela VecchioAurora DevereauxBridget NylundBrother MartinCharmaine HollingsworthCharles Nylund, Sr.Clayton HollingsworthCurtis HollingsworthDon Angelo Grisanti, Sr.Elizabeth HollingsworthGloria HarkerGunter LindstromHolly LindstromDavid BlackmoreJamie DevereauxJanet BlackmoreJim HarkerKate GriffithsLucas HollingsworthLucy WarrenMichael ZbornakPhillip PetrilloRebecca DevereauxTheodore HollingsworthVirginia Warren


  1. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 8, "Break-In". Berg, James and Zimmerman, Stan (writers) & Drake, Jim (director) (November 16th, 1985)
  2. The Golden Girls, Season 6, Episode 14, "Sister of the Bride]". Cherry, Marc and Wooten, Jamie (writers) & Diamond, Matthew (director) (January 12th, 1991)
  3. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 25, "The Way We Met". Speer, Kathy and Grossman, Terry (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (May 10th, 1986)
  4. The Golden Girls, Season 2, Episode 16, "And Then There Was One". Marcus, Russell (writer) & Hughes, Terry (director) (January 31st, 1987)
  5. The Golden Girls, Season 2, Episode 6, “Big Daddy's Little Lady”. Marcus, Russell (writer) & Steinberg, Marcus (director) (November 15th, 1986)
  6. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 19, “Second Motherhood”. Lloyd, Christopher (writer) & Shimokawa, Gary (director) (February 15th, 1986)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 7, "The Competition". Fanaro, Barry and Nathan, Mort (writers) & Drake, Jim (director) (November 2nd, 1985)
  8. 8.0 8.1 The Golden Girls, Season 6, Episode 2, "Once, In St. Olaf". Apter, Harold (writer) & Diamond, Matthew (director) (September, 29th, 1990)
  9. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 12, "The Custody Battle". Grossman, Terry and Speer, Kathy (writers) & Drake, Jim (director) (December 7th, 1985)
  10. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 14, "That Was No Lady". Sage, Liz (writer) & Drake, Jim (director) (December 21st, 1985)
  11. The Golden Girls, Season 4, Episode 6, "Sophia's Wedding, Part 1". Weiss, Martin and Bruce, Robert (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (November 19th, 1990)
  12. The Golden Girls, Season 2, Episode 2, "Ladies of the Evening". Fanaro, Barry and Nathan, Mort (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (October 4th, 1986)
  13. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 17, "Nice and Easy". Silverman, Stuart (writer) & Hughes, Terry (director) (February 1st, 1986)
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 The Golden Girls, Season 4, Episode 1, "Yes, We Have No Havanas". Fanaro, Barry and Nathan, Mort (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (October 8th, 1988)
  15. The Golden Girls, Season 2, Episode 18, “Forgive Me, Father”. Speer, Kathy and Grossman, Terry (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (February 14th, 1987)
  16. The Golden Girls, Season 6, Episode 17, “There Goes The Bride, Part 2”. Parent, Gail and Vallely, Jim (writers) & Diamond, Matthew (director) (February 9th, 1991)
  17. The Golden Girls, Season 4, Episode 6, "Sophia's Wedding (Part 1)". Weiss, Martin and Bruce, Robert (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (November 19th, 1990)
  18. The Golden Girls, Season 4, Episode 20, “High Anxiety”. Weiss, Martin and Bruce, Robert (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (March 25th, 1989)
  19. 19.0 19.1 The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 3, "Rose the Prude". Fanaro, Barry and Nathan, Mort (writers) & Drake, Jim (director) (September 28th, 1985)
  20. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 10, "The Heart Attack". Harris, Susan (writer) & Drake, Jim (director) (November 23rd, 1985)
  21. The Golden Girls, Season 2, Episode 25, “A Piece of Cake”. Fanaro, Barry; Grossman, Terry; Nathan, Mort and Speer, Kathy (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (May 9th, 1987)
  22. 22.0 22.1 The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 1, "The Engagement". Harris, Susan (writer) & Sandrich, Jay (director) (September 14th, 1985)
  23. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 25, "The Way We Met". Speer, Kathy and Grossman, Terry (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (May 10th, 1986)
  24. 24.0 24.1 The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 22, "Job Hunting". Speer, Kathy and Grossman, Terry (writers) & Bogart, Paul (director) (March 8th, 1986)
  25. The Golden Girls, Season 3, Episode 12, “Charlie's Buddy”. Speer, Kathy and Grossman, Terry (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (December 12th, 1987)
  26. The Golden Girls, Season 4, Episode 4, "Yokel Hero". Weiss, Martin and Bruce, Robert (writer) & Hughes, Terry (director) (November 5th, 1988)
  27. The Golden Girls, Season 5, Episode 4, “Rose Fights Back”. Sotkin, Marc (writer) & Hughes, Terry (director) (October 21st, 1989)
  28. The Golden Girls, Season 5, Episode 6, “Dancing in the Dark”. Lasker, Phillip Jayson (writer) & Hughes, Terry (director) (November 4th, 1989)
  29. The Golden Girls, Season 6, Episode 15, “Miles to Go”. Perzigian, Jerry and Seigel, Don (writers) & Diamond, Matthew (director) (January 19th, 1991)
  30. The Golden Girls, Season 6, Episode 21, “Witness”. Hurwitz, Mitchell (writer) & Buzby, Zane (director) (March 9th, 1991)
  31. The Golden Girls, Season 7, Episode 22, "Rose: Portrait of a Woman". Spina, Robert (writer) & Passaris, Lex (director) (March 7th, 1992)
  32. The Golden Girls, Season 5, Episode 4, “Rose Fights Back”. Sotkin, Marc (writer) & Hughes, Terry (director) (October 21st, 1989)
  33. The Golden Girls, Season 3, Episode 2, "One for the Money". Fanaro, Barry; Grossman, Terry; Hervey, Winifred; Nathan, Mort and Speer, Kathy (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (September 26th, 1987)
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Colucci, Jim. Golden Girls Forever: An Unauthorized Look Behind the Lanai. Harper Collins Publishers Design, 2016.
  35. (2020). Mama's family. IMDb. Retrieved March 26, 2020, from
  36. The Golden Girls, Season 1, Episode 3, "Rose the Prude". Fanaro, Barry and Nathan, Mort (writers) & Drake, Jim (director) (September 28th, 1985)
  37. The Golden Girls, Season 2, Episode 3, "Take Him, He’s Mine". Fanaro, Barry and Nathan, Mort (writers) & Hughes, Terry (director) (October 4th, 1986)